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The climate of such a huge country like China cannot be the same throughout
Approximately half of the country's territory lies in the temperate zone, about a quarter of the territory is in the subtropics
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which occupies more than a quarter of the country's territory, is distinguished by Chinese climatologists in a separate area. The climate of China is quite diverse: from monsoon in the east and tropical in the south, to temperate in the north and sharply continental, arid in the west. China is located in the place of the globe where the world's largest ocean meets the world's largest continent.
In the center of this continent, occupied by a huge and high elevated plateau, enclosed by mountains, in winter atmospheric pressure is much higher than over the Pacific Ocean. In winter, therefore, the wind blows from the mainland to the ocean. In the summer, on the contrary, low pressure forms in Central Asia. In summer, therefore, winds prevail from the ocean to the mainland. Rushing over China, both monsoons - winter and summer - because of their opposite properties, have a different effect on the country's climate.
Summer monsoon brings rainy and warm weather, winter - cold and dry. You can figuratively imagine this shift as the struggle of the ocean with the mainland. In summer, the ocean takes over, invading the mainland and sending its moisture there in the form of clouds, in winter the mainland throws masses of cold and dry air and clouds of yellow dust accumulated in its center towards the ocean. The influence of the monsoons explains two distinctive features in the climate of China: a relatively sharp temperature fluctuation during the year and the frequency of precipitation.
Sharp temperature fluctuations are observed even in the coastal parts of China. In winter, due to the prevalence of winds from land, the sea does not have its moderating effect or has very little. The winter monsoon, as it were, pushes China away from the sea. That is why in Beijing, located on the latitude of the city of Naples, in January there are frosts up to 20 degrees. The average temperature of the winter months in Beijing is 4-7 degrees below 0 Celsius.
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In the northern part of the Great Chinese Plain, rivers freeze, and snow falls on the mountains, even in the southern part of East China
In Manchuria, the northernmost part of China, winter lasts several months and is characterized by almost Siberian frosts. The coldest winter in Heilongjiang in Mohe minus 52.3 degrees Celsius. The breath of the winter monsoon reaches even the southernmost border of China, to Guangdong, in the winter there were more than once light frosts and sometimes snow. But the summer monsoon brings not only water vapor, but also heat. In Beijing, in July, the temperature reaches plus 35-40 degrees Celsius.
The Great Plain of China, located in the northern part of East China, has so much heat in summer that it is sufficient for cotton to ripen. In winter, the temperature difference between the northern and southern regions is large and reaches more than 30 degrees Celsius, in the summer it is insignificant and amounts to 3-5 degrees. The second important feature of China's climate is the frequency of precipitation. Only summer winds blowing from the ocean bring rain with them.
For example, in Beijing, more than 70% of precipitation falls in mid-summer. The maximum precipitation, therefore, coincides with the highest temperature. The rains are especially plentiful in the second half of summer, in July - August, although they begin already in the spring. Thus, in China, two main seasons can be distinguished during the year: winter - dry, relatively cold and summer - wet and warm.
Precipitation, in addition to being seasonal, usually falls in the form of showers. Finally, the relief has a great influence on the climate of various parts of China. Here, first of all, the significance of the Qinling ridge should be noted. Qinling largely fences off the northern part of China from the effects of summer monsoons. Therefore, the areas located north of this ridge are characterized by a drier and more continental climate.
There is less rainfall (Beijing - 650 mm), and they fall irregularly; the dry season usually lasts a long time. Northern China, especially in the western part, is prone to drought. In the Takla Makan Desert, less than 50 mm of precipitation falls annually. South of Qinling, there is much more rainfall (Shanghai 1180 mm, Guangdong - 1700 mm), and they fall more evenly - throughout the year. The dry season is shorter in the middle course of the Yangtze, it is no more than two months. However, droughts also occur here.
The temperature is more even, but still with significant jumps. The rather cool winters in the eastern part of the Yangtze basin are explained by the fact that the lower eastern part of Qinling does not protect sufficiently from the cold, winter winds. Finally, the southern coastal part stands out, protected by the South Chinese mountains from winter monsoons. It has a constantly warm, even temperature and heavy rainfall throughout the year. The periods of monsoon change in spring and autumn are distinguished by great disturbances in the atmosphere and destructive typhoons coming from the sea.
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